Bibliothèque Électronique Lac Saint-Pierre

Ballast Water Exchange

de Lafontaine, Y. et Simard, N. (2004). Ballast Water Exchange. [Livre – revue – journal]

de Lafontaine et al_2004_Ballast_water_exchange_A.pdf

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The problem of aquatic species introductions is certainly as old as the transport of goods and merchandise by ship. The replacement of “solid ballast” used in the old days by “liquid ballast” in modern ships has exacerbated the problem, such that ballast water discharge is now recognized as the main pathway of species introduction and transfer in aquatic ecosystems (Carlton 1985, 1996; Carlton and Geller 1993; Wiley and Claudi 2000). Although the importance of this vector is now widely accepted, there are still numerous questions and unverified statements relative to the mechanisms determining the success of species transport and transfer via ballast water. Notwithstanding these unknowns, ballast water management was rapidly foreseen by scientists, governments, international maritime agencies and the shipping industry as a necessary tool to resolve the environmental problem of aquatic species introductions (IMO 2004). Theoretically, ballast water can be managed either via ballast water exchange (BWE) at sea or via ballast water treatment methods. In practice, due to its ease of application and relatively inexpensive operational cost, BWE was adopted quickly by the shipping industry and it currently represents the main method of preventing the introduction and transfer of aquatic species. BWE in mid-ocean may pose a risk to ship safety, so the use of alternate zones in coastal environments has been recommended in cases where BWE cannot be performed at offshore locations. Ideally, these alternate zones should be defined and delineated after rigorous assessment of their appropriateness to minimize the risk of introductions. Since the use of alternate zones should be minimal and restricted to particular cases, the option of using alternative methods to treat ballast water is worth considering. The present paper reviews information on the appropriateness, effectiveness and benefits of alternate zones versus alternative treatment technologies to manage ballast water, using the Gulf of St. Lawrence alternate exchange zone as an example. First, we present an historical overview of the “back-up” zone for BWE in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; secondly, we provide a preliminary assessment of the impact and effectiveness of BWE in the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence basin; and, finally, we discuss the use of alternative treatment methods in the foreseeable future.

Type de document: Livre – revue – journal
Statut du texte intégral: Public
Mots-clés libres: Alternative areas, Alternative methods Ships, Ballast water exchange (BWE), Surface waters, Risk Assessment, Introduced species
Sujets: 1. Laboratoire de développement durable > 1.7. Environnement, écologie, écosystème
2. Milieu physique > 2.4. Hydrologie
4. Faune > 4.2. Poisson
6. Milieu humain > 6.3. Navigation commerciale
9. Nouvelles pressions > 9.2. Espèce de poisson exotique
Date de dépôt: 14 mai 2017 19:29
Dernière modification: 14 mai 2017 19:29

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